Healthy Active Living and Obesity (HALO)

The focus of the HALO group’s research is to:

  • Promote and assess healthy active living among children and youth.
  • Identify, examine and address environmental, behavioural, psychosocial, and biological factors related to healthy active living and obesity in children and youth.
  • Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to prevent, manage, and treat obesity and lifestyle-related diseases in children and youth.

To learn more about HALO’s research, please visit the HALO Research web page

Related News

Research Projects

  1. Worldwide trends in underweight and obesity from 1990 to 2022: a pooled analysis of 3663 population-representative studies with 222 million children, adolescents, and adults.


    Underweight and obesity are associated with adverse health outcomes throughout the life course. Therefore, optimal nutrition and health policies should address both forms of malnutrition, as indicated by Sustainable Development Goal Target 2.2, which calls for ending “all forms of malnutrition”. Trends in underweight and obesity have varied substantially across countries and age groups.1, 2, 3, 4 Furthermore, underweight and obesity have changed independently of each other in some regions.2 Despite these heterogeneities, global data on how the combined (double) burden of underweight and obesity has changed in terms of magnitude and composition are scarce, and the latest data on their individual prevalence are from 2016.1 This lack of consistent evidence hinders optimal resource allocation and policy formulation to address both forms of malnutrition.

  2. Race/ethnicity inequities in the association between movement behaviors and suicidal thoughts/ideation among adolescents.


  3. Correlates of physical activity in children from families speaking non-official languages at home: A multi-site Canadian study.


    Outdoor time was the strongest correlate of boys’ and girls’ PA. Lower area-level SES was associated with less PA among boys, but outdoor time attenuated this difference. The strength of association between outdoor time and PA decreased with age in boys and increased with age in girls.

  4. Future directions for movement behaviour research in the early years.


    The early years are a key developmental period to establish healthy movement behavior patterns for both short- and long-term health and well-being.2,6 Although research in this area is growing, a number of key research gaps are highlighted in this article. Research addressing phases 1 to 4 evidence gaps is necessary for addressing evidence gaps in subsequent BEF phases, including interventions (phase 5), updates to national and international movement behavior guidelines (phase 6) as well as population-level policies (phase 6).12 Across BEF phases there were consistent trends that research is particularly needed that focuses on: all movement behaviors, children aged <3 years (ie, infants and toddlers), and low- and middle-income countries. Research that addresses health inequities in movement behaviors within and between countries to support a healthy start in our youngest generation of children is essential to improving population health globally and universally as part of COVID-19 pandemic recovery efforts and efforts in achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals for 2030.2

  5. Associations between problem technology use, life stress, and self-esteem among high school students


    Adolescence marks a critical biological, social, and psychological growth and development period. Adverse influences on emotional and psychological well-being can thus impair healthy development within this period of vulnerability [1, 2]. Significant links between self-esteem and life stress have been identified, with both high life stress and low self-esteem during adolescence being strong predictors of poor health and development [1, 3, 4]. These adverse effects include an increased risk of developing mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety [3, 5]. Additionally, problem technology use, which refers to technology usage in a manner which elicits biopsychosocial harm, has also been associated in a systematic review with poor health and developmental outcomes due to adverse effects on sleep and mental health [6].

  6. Changes in breakfast and water consumption among adolescents in Canada: examining the impact of COVID-19 in worsening inequity


    Prospective annual survey data collected pre- (October 2019-March 2020) and post-COVID-19 onset (November 2020-June 2021) the Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol, Smoking, and Sedentary behaviour (COMPASS) study. The sample consisted of 8,128 students; mean (SD) age = 14.2 (1.3) years from a convenience sample of 41 Canadian secondary schools. At both timepoints self-reported breakfast and water consumption were dichotomized as daily or not. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations with school clustering were used to estimate differences in maintenance/adoption of daily consumption post-COVID-19 based on demographic factors, while controlling for pre-COVID-19 behaviour.

  7. “Goldilocks days” for adolescent mental health: movement behaviour combinations for well-being, anxiety and depression by gender.


    The Dual Continua Model of mental health suggests two separate, but related, dimensions of mental health contribute to social, emotional and vocational/academic functioning (Westerhof & Keyes, 2010): 1) an illness dimension capturing the presence and severity of syndromal symptoms (e.g. internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, psychosis) and 2) a positive well-being dimension capturing subjective feelings of well-being (e.g. perceiving meaning in life, satisfaction with social relationships, self-efficacy). Better functioning outcomes in both adults and youth are associated with reporting both low levels of illness symptoms and high levels of positive well-being, as opposed to individuals who just report one or the other (Butler, Patte, Ferro, & Leatherdale, 2019; Dumuid et al., 2022; Duncan, Patte, & Leatherdale, 2021; Keyes, 2002). Much of the research on mental illness symptoms in relation to movement behaviours has focused on reducing clinically significant symptoms or avoiding disease states (Mammen & Faulkner, 2013; Ravindran et al., 2018; Recchia et al., 2023). Nevertheless, even among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria for mental illness, subsyndromal levels of symptoms can impair functioning compared to those with lower levels of symptomology (Hirschfeld, 2001). Avoiding disease should not be the only goal of mental health promotion, promoting behaviours associated with an optimal state of mental health must be also considered.

  8. Prioritizing a research agenda on built environments and physical activity: a twin panel Delphi consensus process with researchers and knowledge users.


    Habitual physical activity (PA) improves health and well-being and helps to reduce the risk for injury, many chronic conditions and premature mortality [1, 2]. However, prevailing inactive lifestyles mean inadequate numbers of children and adults meet national and international PA guidelines for health benefits [3]. There is growing recognition that ecological models can contribute to enhancing understanding of the facilitators and barriers to PA, notably as related to the influence of various aspects of the built environments on individual and social behaviours [4]. Built environments reflect the design and layout of the communities in which people live, work, learn and play and include land use for buildings and grounds, road and transit infrastructure, and parks and recreation facilities. In their review of the literature, Sallis et al. framed that the built environment exerts influence on PA behaviours in four key life domains: leisure/recreation, work/education, transportation, and household [4]. While the need for multiple levels of built environment interventions and policies related to PA are widely acknowledged, continuing challenges include identification of the optimal combination of study designs, target groups, built environment attributes, and policy processes to elevate understanding of which environmental changes will be most beneficial for PA promotion within and across populations [3].

  9. Exercise breaks prevent attenuation in cerebrovascular function following an acute bout of uninterrupted sitting in healthy children.


    Childhood sedentary behaviour was already at alarming levels before the COVID-19 pandemic (Saunders, 2014); however, as children have transitioned to a largely seated digital environment for schooling and social interaction during country-wide lockdowns and restrictions, sedentary time increased by an average of 160 min per day (Runacres et al., 2021). The health impacts of such increases in sedentary behaviour in childhood have yet to be fully elucidated. This is worrisome, given evidence that excessive sedentary time is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in both children and adults (Hamilton et al., 2008; Saunders et al., 2014).

  10. Children and youth’s movement behaviours differed across phases and by geographic region throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Nova Scotia, Canada: An explanatory sequential mixed-methods study.


    Nova Scotia also provides a unique case study due to it being the region’s most populated (~ 1 million residents) and culturally diverse population. Additionally, its advantageous geography of being a maritime province, relatively separate from other provinces and territories, allowed Nova Scotia to have control over its entry points to implement strict boarder controls and limit the introduction of new COVID-19 cases from outside the area. The surrounding Atlantic provinces were also entered into an agreement with Nova Scotia known as the “Atlantic Bubble” from June 2020 until April 2021, allowing residents to travel freely within the region without quarantine requirements. Internationally, this is comparable to other regions or countries who implemented similar practices, such as fully-closed borders or travel zones, facilitating low transmission, safe travel, and economic benefits, including the Australia/New Zealand Travel Bubble the Baltic Travel Bubble of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Thus, potentially contributing to evidence on these models in the mitigation of virus transmission while also preserving access to areas and amenities related to favourable movement behaviours.

  11. Unmasking the political power of physical activity research: Harnessing the ‘apolitical-ness’ as a catalyst for addressing the challenges of our time


    Physical activity, particularly in the form of sports, has been suggested as a valuable tool for crime prevention, community integration, and social cohesion in disciplines such as humanities, sociology, and criminal justice studies.9 However, in physical activity scholarship, the predominant focus has often been on investigating correlates, determinants, and health outcomes of physical activity, driven by quantitative research with a strong biomedical emphasis at an individual level. As a result, the potential benefits of physical activity in positively addressing macrolevel challenges have received comparatively less attention. Nevertheless, Bailey et al’s10,11 work published in the Journal of Physical Activity and Health in early 2010s brought attention to physical activity as an often overlooked investment for human and social capital. Their work introduced the human capital model,11 which recognizes the underappreciated value of physical activity despite its importance for overall well-being beyond health benefits. The model proposes that different types of “capitals” are generated through physical activity, encompassing emotional, financial, individual, intellectual, physical, and social domains. The authors argue that investing in these capitals, particularly during early life stages, can yield significant individual and social rewards. It is worth noting that although we appreciate the deliberate effort made by these authors to positively frame the multifaceted benefits of physical activity, their suggested reframing of “physical activity” as a solution remains closely aligned with neoliberal ideology prevalent in the dominant public health discourse.

  12. Child and youth physical activity throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: The changing role of the neighbourhood built and social environments.


    Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Canadian 24-h movement guidelines recommend that children and youth aged 5–17 years accumulate at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily on average to optimize health outcomes (Colley et al., 2011; Tremblay et al., 2016; World Health Organization, 2020a). When children and youth meet these recommendations they are more likely to experience favourable physical (e.g., cardiometabolic), psychological/social (e.g., self-esteem, confidence), and cognitive (e.g., academic performance) health outcomes (Tremblay et al., 2016). Despite this evidence, children and youth in Canada and elsewhere struggle to meet MVPA recommendations, where only 43.9% of Canadian children were meeting this guideline before the COVID-19 pandemic (Public health Agency of Canada, 2023).

  13. Measuring severe obesity in pediatrics using body mass index‑derived metrics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization: a secondary analysis of CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) data.


    To examine the (i) relationships between various body mass index (BMI)-derived metrics for measuring severe obesity (SO) over time based the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) references and (ii) ability of these metrics to discriminate children and adolescents based on the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. In this cohort study completed from 2013 to 2021, we examined data from 3- to 18-year-olds enrolled in the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of meeting the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines among a sample of Canadian parents during the COVID-19 pandemic.


    Canada’s 24-hour movement guidelines for adults (aged 18–64 years) provide evidence-based recommendations for moderate­-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥150 min/week), sedentary behaviour (SB; ≤8 h/day, including ≤ 3 h/day of recreational screen time) and sleep (7 to 9 h/day) [1]. A healthy 24-hour movement profile, comprised of greater physical activity (PA), less SB and sufficient sleep, is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality and numerous non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, several types of cancer, depression, and anxiety disorders [2,3,4,5,6]. Using a representative sample of Canadian adults, a recent study using pre-COVID-19 data found that meeting the integrated 24-hour movement guidelines and different combinations of recommendations within the guidelines was associated with a number of favourable health indicators [7].

  15. Physical activity and recreational screen time change among adolescents in Canada: Examining the impact of COVID-19 in worsening inequity


    This paper provides a prospective longitudinal analysis assessing social demographic factors related to changes in MVPA and screen use behaviours among adolescents during the first full school year after the emergence of COVID-19. Sex/gender, race/ethnicity, and SES were related to differences in MVPA or screen use behaviours, sex/gender discrepancies in MVPA were further modified by racial/ethnic differences. Unsurprisingly (Clemens et al., 2020; Golberstein et al., 2020; Armitage and Nellums, 2020), the results seem to suggest that for many populations, pre-existing inequitable gaps have widened.

  16. Sleep duration change among adolescents in Canada: Examining the impact of COVID-19 in worsening inequity.


    The purpose of this analysis was to assess which sub-population (based on interactions of race/ethnicity, sex/gender, socioeconomic indicators, and urbanicity) experienced larger change in sleep behaviours from 2019 to 2020 (before the onset of the pandemic) to the 2020–2021 school year (during the 2nd and 3rd waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada (Wu et al., 2021)) in a prospective cohort of adolescents living in Canada. We expected that the COVID-19 pandemic would worsen inequities so the sleep duration gains would be less seen in racialized adolescents, girls, and those coming from lower SES backgrounds.

  17. Identifying risk profiles for non-adherence to the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth six months into the COVID-19 pandemic.


    The purposes of the current study were to identify risk profiles for nonadherence among children and youth (5–17 y) at the 6-month mark of the COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss similarities and differences between risk profiles identified in the current study and those identified at the 1-month mark of the pandemic. 

  18. Associations between anxiety disorders and depression symptoms are related to 24-hour movement behaviors among Brazilian adolescents.


    The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of adhering to multiple movement-related lifestyle targets on symptom severity of depression in adolescents with a history of anxiety disorders to those with no prior diagnosis of anxiety. A secondary aim was to examine whether treatment status or time since receiving diagnosis of anxiety disorder further moderated any effects of movement behaviors on depression symptom severity.

  19. Exploring New Tools for Risk Classification among Adults with Several Degrees of Obesity


    The one-size-fits-all approach should be avoided when programs to treat obesity are offered. The identification of subgroups with distinct risk profiles is an important way to improve clinical practice [7,10]. It is essential to make it more feasible to offer access to treatment programs to those with higher health risks [3]. Hence, the main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of traditional and recently developed risk factors by assessing tools such as the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and related indexes, the continuous metabolic severity score (MetSs), and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), which are related to different obesity categories, in a sample of Brazilian adults.

  20. Associations Between Type and Timing of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Mental Health in Adolescents and Young Adults


     Leisure-time PA was found to have a favorable association with mental health, particularly in the evenings of weekdays and afternoons of weekend days. On the other hand, leisure SB was associated with poorer mental health in most of the time segments analyzed, and nonleisure SB in the evenings was also related to worse mental health. The type and timing of PA and SB behaviors play an important role in the relationship with mental health.

  21. Body weight at age 4 years and readiness to start school: a prospective cohort study


    Being classified as overweight or with obesity was associated with poor school readiness in year 2 of kindergarten. Early interventions to promote healthy growth before school entry may help promote development and school readiness in young children. (NCT01869530).

  22. The 2022 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth: Focus on the COVID-19 pandemic impact and equity-deserving groups


    Efforts are needed to improve physical activity for children and youth during and post-pandemic, with a greater emphasis on equity-deserving groups.

  23. Using classification and regression trees to model missingness in youth BMI, height and body mass data


    The subgroups identified by the CART models indicate that a sample that deletes cases with missing BMI would be biased towards physically, emotionally and mentally healthier youth. Given the ability of CART models to identify these subgroups and a hierarchy of variable importance, they are an invaluable tool for examining missing data patterns and appropriate handling of missing data.

  24. Scientific sinkhole: estimating the cost of peer review based on survey data with snowball sampling


    Peer review represents an important fnancial piece of scientifc publishing. Our results may not represent all countries or felds of study, but are consistent with previous estimates and provide additional context from peer reviewers themselves. Researchers and scientists have long provided peer review as a contribution to the scientific community. Recognizing the importance of peer-review, institutions should acknowledge these costs in job descriptions, performance measurement, promotion packages, and funding applications. Journals should develop methods to compensate reviewers for their time and improve transparency while maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process.

  25. Bidirectional associations of sleep and discretionary screen time in adults: Longitudinal analysis of the UK biobank


    Poor sleep at baseline was associated with high DST at follow up, and vice-versa. Participants with either an intermediate or a poor sleep pattern showed higher odds for high DST at follow-up compared with participants having a healthy sleep pattern.

  26. Canadian children’s independent mobility during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey


    We observed that the correlates of IM during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic span the social-ecological model. This overarching finding is consistent with pre-pandemic literature, suggesting that interventions aiming to support children’s IM should target multiple levels while paying particular attention to the family level. Our findings suggest that encouraging dog ownership, supporting parental tolerance to risk, addressing parental concerns about traffic and crime safety, and promoting AT to work and school may be suitable targets for intervention to promote IM. Initiatives to promote IM in a pandemic context could also raise awareness about activities like walking, cycling, and outdoor play that can be done in compliance with public health recommendations. Finally, future studies should examine how to support IM among children with disabilities.

  27. Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development


  28. Associations of meeting 24-h movement behavior guidelines with cognitive difficulty and social relationships in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder


    Meeting 24-HMB guidelines was associated with reduced likelihood of cognitive and social difficulties in children and adolescents with ADHD. These findings highlight the importance of adhering to healthy lifestyle behaviors as outlined in the 24-HMB recommendations with regard to cognitive and social difficulties in children and adolescents with ADHD. These results need to be confirmed by longitudinal and interventional studies with a large sample size.

  29. Economic burden of excessive sedentary behaviour in Canada


    Excessive sedentary behaviour significantly contributes to the economic burden of illness in Canada. There is a need for evidence-based and cost-effective strategies that reduce excessive sedentary behaviour in the population.

  30. Evidence supporting a combined movement behavior approach for children and youth’s mental health – a scoping review and environmental scan


    There is a wealth of knowledge on the association between combined MB and MH though only one tool examined how combined MB and MH are associated. Efforts are warranted to better track and intervene on population and individual-level 24-h MB for MH promotion and disease prevention.

  31. Toward an Integrated Consideration of 24 h Movement Guidelines and Nutritional Recommendations


    Dietary and movement behaviors appear to be closely related and positively influence each other. While adherence to the 24 h Movement Guidelines or following dietary recommendations improve health and well-being independently in both adults and youth, interactions between these factors also play a central role. Giving recommendations on one of these parameters will inevitably impact the others. Consequently, a broader and integrated 24 h approach is necessary and will be more efficient than a segmented or siloed approach that only considers one component individually. Therefore, combining the 24 h movement recommendations with the dietary recommendations could produce a stronger and better impact on overall adult and youth health than having them separately. For example, late-night television watching is associated with increased snacking and poor sleep quality, while insufficient sleep is associated with increased food intake and increased SBs. Not considering recommendations around eating habits when providing advice on 24 h movement behaviors is misleading and ignores important connections that should be considered. Future studies should continue to investigate this all-encompassing 24 h approach to public health guidelines while keeping in mind that simple messaging is important for better uptake.

  32. Scoping review of adult-oriented outdoor play publications in Canada


    There has been a staggering amount of articles published on adult-oriented outdoor play in Canada since 2015. Knowledge gaps remain in the relationship between outdoor play and adult mental/emotional development; the connections between environmental health and Indigenous cultures and traditions; and how to balance promoting outdoor unstructured play with protecting and preserving natural spaces.

  33. Sleep quality, physical activity, screen time, and substance use in children with obesity: associations with obstructive sleep apnea


    In children with obesity, more substance-use behaviors were independently associated with greater OSA severity. As there are complex, bidirectional relationships between lifestyle behaviors and OSA severity, interventions need to be comprehensive and multifactorial to ensure successful treatment of OSA and its sequelae in children.

  34. Independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status with health-related quality of life among Brazilian adolescents


    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong correlate of HRQoL across most of the dimensions measured, while BMI was a correlate of one dimension of HRQoL. Future studies should evaluate these relationships prospectively and experimentally.

  35. Delaying children’s bedtime affects food intake and is related to emotions rather than satiety


    Overall, this study provides good scientific evidence that delaying children’s bedtime by only one hour increases food intake, especially ultraprocessed and noncore foods. Findings from this study also remind us that there is emotional eating associated with sleep loss. Given that school start times are fixed on weekdays, parents should ensure a consistent bedtime routine that allows children to obtain sufficient sleep (i.e., 9–11 h per night). Removing digital devices (e.g., cellphones, TVs) from children’s bedrooms and making sure children are physically active for at least one hour daily (especially outside) can go a long way to ensure a healthy sleep.

  36. Associations between meeting 24-hour movement guidelines and quality of life among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder


    Significant associations were found between adhering to 24-HMB guidelines and selected QoL indicators. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle as a key factor in promoting and preserving the QoL of children with ASD.

  37. The relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms is domain-specific, age-dependent, and non-linear: An analysis of the Brazilian national health survey


    Non-linear relationships between PA and depressive symptoms were observed for all PA domains among the Brazilian population. The like-lihood of depressive symptoms was lower in participants who engaged in leisure-time PA but higher among those with higher levels of PA in the domains of domestic, occupational, and transport. Nevertheless, older adults who engaged in higher levels of domestic PA and transport PA. were less likely to have depressive symptoms than those who were not engaged

  38. Describing 24-hour movement behaviours among preconception and recently pregnant Canadian parents: who do we need to target?


    The aim of this study was to describe the movement behaviors of parents and parents-to-be in Canada using the 24-hour movement paradigm, as well as to determine correlates of these behaviors and whether sex-differences existed between mothers and fathers.

  39. Scoping review of children’s and youth’s outdoor play publications in Canada


    A wealth of knowledge on outdoor play in Canada has been produced since 2015. Further research is needed on the relationship between outdoor play and mental/emotional development among children and youth.

  40. The role of insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment in obesity


    Growing evidence indicates that both insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment contribute to adverse metabolic health and obesity by altering multiple components of energy metabolism and behaviour. Insufficient sleep increases 24 h energy expenditure and, under controlled energy intake conditions, changes in appetite hormones occur that promote hunger and energy intake.

  41. Parent-perceived changes in active transportation and independent mobility among Canadian children in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from two national surveys


    Using data from two comparable national surveys, we aimed to describe parent-reported changes in children’s AT and IM from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and explore correlates of behavior change.

  42. Surveillance to improve physical activity of children and adolescents


    Increasing physical activity and combating sedentary behaviour among children and adolescents globally will require a step change in surveillance. However, this step should not be simply a monitoring exercise. Our experience, supported by many international examples, suggests that improved surveillance will also inform and inspire changes in public health policy and practice. The time has arrived for making such a step change because: (i) physical activity is now recognized as important globally for achieving several SDGs and for preventing many noncommunicable diseases; (ii) WHO has produced new global guidelines on physical activity from infancy to adulthood;2,4 and (iii) there is a need to solve the physical activity crisis after the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, not monitoring physical activity adequately across the population’s life-course has substantial opportunity costs.

  43. Correlates of outdoor time in schoolchildren from families speaking non-official languages at home: a multi-site Canadian study


    Correlates of outdoor time differ according to gender, suggesting that gender-sensitized interventions should be considered to increase children’s outdoor time. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing parental concerns about neighborhood safety and cohesion, especially for girls. Since parents may overestimate the risks associated with outdoor activities,1 interventions aiming to raise awareness about the benefits of outdoor play and realign the balance between risks and benefits are warranted.35 Conversely, our results suggest that IM may be an important enabler of outdoor time, especially in boys. Overall, this study suggests that to increase outdoor time in this subpopulation, multilevel interventions targeting individual, family, and social environmental correlates are likely needed.

  44. Validity of low-cost measures for global surveillance of physical activity in pre-school children: The SUNRISE validation study


    Parent reports may have limited validity for assessing pre-schoolers' level of total physical activity. Step-counting is a promising alternative – low-cost global surveillance initiatives could potentially use pedometers for assessing compliance with the physical activity guideline in early childhood.

  45. Health associations with meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines recommendations according to body mass index classes in Canadian adults


    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Canadian adults meeting the 24-H Guidelines and each recommendation in the guidelines by BMI class. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine the associations between meeting individual and various combinations of the recommendations in the 24-H Guidelines with health indicators.

  46. Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Global Matrix 4.0 – a resource for physical activity researchers


    The AHKGA has accumulated substantial information, evidence, and resources related to the physical activity and related behaviors of children and adolescents around the world as well as the sources of influence of these behaviors.4–7 More than 170 peer-reviewed manuscripts have been published from these resources, and further exploitation of these data is invited.

  47. Recent Secular Trends in Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Internationally: Analyses of Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Global Matrices 1.0 to 4.0


    Our findings suggest that across the 4 Global Matrix initiatives (published between 2014 and 2022) time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents globally, and the influences on these behaviors, were relatively stable, though for most of the report card indicators trends were more undesirable in countries with higher levels of gender inequality. If the global goal to reduce physical inactivity in adolescents by 15% by 203027 is to be met, the present study suggests that more urgent and substantial actions will be required in the rest of this decade. If global ambitions to reduce gender inequalities in physical activity among children and adolescents are to be achieved25, the present study also suggests more urgent and more substantive attention is required.

  48. Association between physical activity indicators and Human Development Index at a national level: Information from Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Cards for Children and Adolescents


    Patterns of PA indicators differed according to the HDI, and specific circumstance of individual countries/localities and these patterns should be considered when studying PA in children and adolescents. The most evident differences are that the subgroups of females, children, rural residents, with/without disabilities from countries/localities with very high and high HDI performed better in the organized sport and PA indicator than their peers from countries/localities with lower HDI. In addition, differences between urban and rural areas were observed, mainly showing that children and adolescents living in rural areas of countries/localities with higher HDI showed better performance than those living in other countries/localities for the active play indicator. Also, children and adolescents living in urban areas of countries/localities with lower HDI showed better performance than those living in countries/localities with higher HDI the active transportation indicator. Finally, countries/localities with higher HDI reported better indicators for sources of influence (community and environment and government) than those with lower HDI. We hope this preliminary exploration will prompt better surveillance and reporting going forward.

  49. Economic freedom, climate culpability, and physical activity indicators among children and adolescents: Report Card grades from the Global Matrix 4.0


    This is the first study to explore the patterns of AHKGA Report Card grades by factors including economic freedom and climate culpability using the most recent data from the Global Matrix 4.0. Our findings suggested that neoliberal capitalist ideology, as assessed by the Index of Economic Freedom, and climate culpability (ie, how responsible each country is for climate change), together, may be related to Report Card grades, by potentially acting as background forces in generating disproportionate outcomes in moderately and less free countries/jurisdictions.

  50. Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Card Grades for Children and Adolescents: Results and analyses from 57 countries


    The Global Matrix 4.0 represents the largest compilation of children’s and adolescents’ PA characteristics to date. While a variation in the data informing the grades across countries was transparently acknowledged and reported, this initiative highlighted that the global situation regarding the PA of children and adolescents remains a serious public health concern, with only a small proportion (27%–33%) meeting the recommended amount of MVPA required for ongoing health and well-being.

  51. Report card grades on physical activity for children and adolescents from 18 Asian countries: Patterns, trends, gaps, and future recommendations


    Through international collaboration and capacity building in Asian countries that participated in the GM initiative, this study provided patterns and temporal trends of Report Card grades from Asian countries.

  52. Economic burden of insomnia symptoms in Canada


    Insomnia symptoms greatly contribute to the economic burden of illness in Canada. Reducing the prevalence of insomnia symptoms would reduce its societal burden.

  53. Global Matrix 4.0 physical activity report cards grades for children and adolescents: A comparison among 15 Asian countries and regions


    The comparison of Global Matrix 4.0 report card grades across 15 Asian jurisdictions showed poor grades for physical activity and sedentary behavior in general. The better, though modest, grades on the sources of influence have not been translated into favorable behaviors among children and adolescents. The findings also identified surveillance gaps for physical fitness, active play, and organized sport participation.

  54. Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours due to the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents


    Ongoing efforts continue to be made to understand the potential impacts of COVID-19-related preventative public health measures. This large cross-sectional study is among the first to describe the sociodemographic and mental health characteristics of Canadian adolescents in relation to perceived changes in movement behaviours during the months immediately following introduction of lockdown measures. The survey capturing responses of students across Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia (Canada) found that a perceived increase in screen time as a result of the pandemic was highly prevalent, with social media increase among females compared to males having the largest effect size among gender-based comparisons of movement behaviour changes.

  55. Movement behaviours, breakfast consumption, and fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents


    Compliance with the physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations was associated with more frequent consumption of breakfast and fruits and vegetables in a representative sample of adolescents in Ontario, Canada.

  56. Associations between sedentary behavior and negative emotions in adolescents during home confinement: mediating role of social support and sleep quality


    The results of the present research suggest that social support and sleep quality are important factors mediating the relationship between sedentary behavior and negative emotions in adolescents during a COVID-19-related home confinement in Shenzhen.

  57. Predictive Validity of the Infant Toddler Checklist in Primary Care at the 18-month Visit and School Readiness at 4 to 6 Years


    The ITC demonstrated high specificity suggesting that most children with a negative ITC screen will demonstrate school readiness at 4–6 years, and low false positive rates, minimizing over-diagnosis. The ITC had low sensitivity highlighting the importance of ongoing developmental surveillance and screening.

  58. Top 10 international priorities for physical fitness research and surveillance among children and adolescents: A twin-panel Delphi study


    The priorities identified in this study provide guidance for future international collaborations and research efforts on the physical fitness of children and adolescents over the next decade and beyond.

  59. Learning from missing data: examining nonreporting patterns of height, weight, and BMI among Canadian youth


    Findings from this study suggest that nonreporting in youth height and weight is likely somewhat related to the values themselves, and hint that social desirability may play a substantial role in nonreporting. The predictors of missingness identified in this study can be used to inform future studies on the potential bias stemming from missing data and identify auxiliary variables that may be used for multiple imputation approaches.

  60. Cyberbullying involvement, parental support, and cannabis use among adolescents


    Our results showed that cyberbullying involvement in any role (i.e., cyberbullying victim only, cyberbullying perpetrator only, or cyberbullying perpetrator-victim) was associated with greater odds of cannabis use after adjusting for important covariates. Results further indicated that higher parental support was associated with lower odds of cannabis use in a dose-response fashion. Higher parental support was also associated with a lower risk of cyberbullying involvement.

  61. Meeting 24-h movement guidelines and health-related quality of life in youths during the COVID-19 pandemic


    Our results show that the participants enrolled in the current study who met the 24 h movement guidelines presented with higher HRQoL scores during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, adherence to all the 24 h movement guidelines was inversely related to worries/sadness/unhappy feelings during the first part of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  62. A standardized core outcome set for measuring and reporting sedentary behaviour interventional research: the CROSBI Consensus Study


    This open access CROSBI provides a data collection and reporting tool for use across many adult populations and domains of living. Widespread adoption will improve the quality and synthesis of data from intervention studies in adults, and thereby improve synthesis of evidence, management of resources and ultimately interventions for sedentary behaviour change. Researchers should refer to this COS when designing and reporting intervention studies related to SB to improve quality, aid interpretation and allow pooling of results in meta-analyses.

  63. An Intervention to Increase Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education Centers (PROmoting Early Childhood Outside): Protocol for a Pilot Wait-list Control Cluster Randomized Trial


    The results and lessons learned through this study will inform the feasibility of a full-scale randomized trial that continues to assess the effectiveness of the intervention as well as help develop guidelines for the implementation of the PRO-ECO intervention in other ECECs. Furthermore, the health economic analyses will generate data to inform the sustainability of future academic and health policies in ECECs.

  64. Regional differences in movement behaviours of children and youth during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada: Follow-up from a national study


    This study provides an examination of regional differences in movement and play behaviours among Canadian children and youth during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  65. Associations between children’s physical literacy and well-being: is physical activity a mediator?


    The study found beneficial relations between PL and physical and psychosocial well-being. MVPA mediated part of the relationship between PL and physical well-being but not psychosocial well-being.

  66. Associations of passive and active screen time with psychosomatic complaints of adolescents


    This study supports limiting any type of screen time, either passive or active, to 2 hours/day to foster well-being.

  67. Levels and Correlates of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Young Children: SUNRISE Study Results from 19 Countries


    Our investigation of levels and correlates of device-measured sedentary time in a diverse international sample of young children revealed that 56.1% of their daily waking hours were spent sedentary. Our results highlight how children residing in UMIC appear to be exhibiting similar unfavorable sedentary behavior profiles to children in HIC.

  68. Economic burden of insufficient sleep duration in Canadian adults


    Insufficient sleep duration is an important contributor to health care spending and health-related losses of productivity in Canada. Studies are needed to test cost-effective sleep health interventions at the population level.

  69. Play, Learn, and Teach Outdoors – Network (PLaTO-Net): terminology, taxonomy, and ontology


    . This work has a number of implications for research, policy, and practice as it advances PLaTO-based research and facilitates intersectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration, with PLaTO Net’s long-term goal of fostering and strengthening PLaTO’s synergistic linkages with healthy living, environmental stewardship, climate action, and planetary health agendas.

  70. Environmental scan of outdoor play-based projects, programs, activities and services available in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic


    We identified 79 items in Canada related to outdoor play during COVID-19 and received 36 responses to our survey of child and youth-oriented outdoor play providers (conducted during May 2021). This scan highlights the overwhelming support for outdoor play during the pandemic and makes recommendations on how outdoor play may support post-pandemic recovery efforts.

  71. Associations between organized sport participation and mental health difficulties: Data from over 11,000 US children and adolescents


    The findings complement previous work suggesting that team-based organized sport may be a vehicle to support youth mental health. Future research should confirm to what extent, and under what circumstances, participating in strictly individual sport may be problematic for child and adolescent mental health outcomes.

  72. Years of life gained when meeting sleep duration recommendations in Canada


    Findings from this study suggest that nonreporting in youth height and weight is likely somewhat related to the values themselves, and hint that social desirability may play a substantial role in nonreporting.

  73. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Home-Based, Multidisciplinary, Family-Centered Pediatric Obesity Intervention: The ProxOb Program


    This paper aims to detail the development, implementation, and evaluation phases of the ProxOb home-based, family-centered program and present its feasibility and early results.

  74. Handgrip Strength Asymmetry is Associated with Slow Gait Speed and Poorer Standing Balance in Older Americans


    Handgrip strength (HGS) asymmetry may help identify the functional asymmetries that contribute to mobility limitations. We sought to determine the associations of HGS asymmetry on gait speed and standing balance in older Americans.

  75. Low leptin levels are associated with elevated physical activity among lean school children in rural Tanzania


    Our cross-sectional field study is the first that supports the hypothesis of low leptin levels as a potential endocrine trigger of high PA in lean children of a LMIC.

  76. Meeting 24-h movement guidelines: prevalence, correlates, and associations with socioemotional behavior in Spanish minors


    Our results indicate that the prevalence of Spanish children and youth meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was low, and was related to age, SES, HDI, S80/S20 ratio, and diet quality. About one out of ten participants showed socioemotional behavioral problems.

  77. Cyberbullying involvement and short sleep duration among adolescents


    Research has shown that cyberbullying victimization is associated with short sleep duration among adolescents; however, the association between cyberbullying perpetration and sleep duration is unclear.

  78. International school-related sedentary behaviour recommendations for children and youth


    This paper presents the first evidence-based recommendations for school-related sedentary behaviours for children and youth.

  79. School-related sedentary behaviours and indicators of health and well-being among children and youth: A Systematic Review


    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the associations between school-related sedentary behaviours and indicators of health and well-being in children and youth (~ 5–18 years) attending school.

  80. Movement behaviors and their association with depressive symptoms in Brazilian adolescents: A cross-sectional study


    The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between self-reported and accelerometer-measured movement behaviors and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  81. Sleep behaviours among Canadian adults: Findings from the 2020 Canadian Community Health Survey healthy living rapid response module


    These findings provide a benchmark for the sleep health of Canadians before the COVID-19 pandemic. Further surveillance and research are needed to assess the impact of the pandemic on sleep behaviour.

  82. Parental psychological problems were associated with higher screen time and the use of mature-rated media in children


    This cross-sectional study was not able to examine causal associations.

  83. Children’s screen use and school readiness at 4-6 years in kindergarten: Prospective cohort study


    Screen use in early childhood is associated with increased vulnerability in developmental readiness for school, with increased risk for poorer language and cognitive development in kindergarten, especially among high users.

  84. Socio-demographic factors associated with meeting the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines among adults: Findings from the Canadian Health Measures Survey


    Few Canadian adults meet the Canadian 24hrMG and disparities across socio-demographic factors exist.

  85. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines, life stress, and self-esteem among adolescents


    These findings suggest that meeting the recommendations of the 24-h movement guidelines is associated with lower life stress and better self-esteem among adolescents.

  86. Prevalence and associated factors of excessive recreational screen time among Colombian children and adolescents


    These interventions should promote limiting the availability of electronic devices in children’s bedrooms and not eating in front of screens.

  87. Association between physical activity, screen time and sleep, and school readiness in Canadian children 4-6 years


    Early lifestyle interventions targeting screen use and sleep may be beneficial for improving a child's readiness for school.

  88. Problem technology use, academic performance, and school connectedness among adolescents


    Excessive use and problem technology use are highly prevalent among secondary school students, and they are associated with lower academic performance and lower levels of school connectedness.

  89. Individual and family characteristics associated with health indicators at entry into multidisciplinary pediatric weight management: Findings from the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR)


    This highlights the importance of these modifiable health behaviors on multiple health indicators in children with obesity.

  90. Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis


    Additional studies are needed to understand why and how Korean interventions differ from non-Korean interventions.

  91. Normative reference values for actigraphy-measured total nocturnal sleep time in the US population


    Actigraphy-assessed sleep data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used for this study.

  92. The two sides of sedentary behavior


    Some challenges and research recommendations are compiled, and other can be drawn from the ever - growing scientific evidence related to SB across different fields.

  93. How do adolescents with short sleep duration spend their extra waking hours? A device-based analysis of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a Brazilian sample


    Patterns of waking behaviours are similar between short and adequate sleepers.

  94. Physical activity and active transportation behaviour among rural, peri-urban and urban children in Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria: The PAAT Study


    Most correlates of AT and PA were country-specific, suggesting that strategies to encourage both behaviours should be informed by local evidence.

  95. Health associations with meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey


    These findings provide support for the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and show that less than 1 in 10 Canadian adults are meeting all three of the healthy movement behaviour guidelines.

  96. Health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for cardiorespiratory fitness among youth: A systematic review


    To further inform the development of universal cut-points, there is a need for additional research, using standardized testing protocols and health-risk definitions, that examines health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for CRF that are age, sex, and culturally diverse.

  97. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines. The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children (5-12 years) and Young People (13-17 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep


    Other countries may consider this approach when developing and/or revising national movement guidelines.

  98. Muscular fitness and cardiometabolic variables in children and adolescents: a systematic review


    MF assessed by maximum muscular strength/power or muscular endurance is potentially associated with lower obesity and lower risk related to clustered cardiometabolic variables in children and adolescents. There is limited support for an inverse association between MF with blood pressure, lipids, glucose homeostasis biomarkers, and inflammatory markers in children and adolescents.

  99. Prevalence and correlates of highly caffeinated beverage consumption among Korean adolescents


     Effective programs to curb HCB consumption among Korean adolescents need to be established.

  100. Inactive Lifestyles Among Young Children With Innocent Murmurs or Congenital Heart Disease, Regardless of Disease Severity or Treatment


    These results emphasize the need for interventions targeting the youngest children seen in cardiac clinics, regardless of diagnoses of CHD or innocent murmur.

  101. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the movement behaviors of children and youth: A scoping review of evidence after the first year


    There is an urgent need for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to develop solutions for attenuating adverse changes in physical activity and screen time among children and youth.

  102. Associations between school environments, policies and practices and children’s physical activity and active transportation


    Schools should determine the areas in which they can improve and assess the feasibility of implementing measures to make their school environments, policies, and practices more conducive to PA and AST.

  103. Translation and validation of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy-2 in a Danish sample


    The translated and context-adapted Danish version of CAPL-2 is a valid and reliable measurement tool ready to use in Danish research studies.

  104. The influence of sex and maturation on carotid and vertebral artery hemodynamics and associations with free-living (in)activity in 6-17-year-olds


    These findings provide novel insight into the potential influence sedentary behavior may have on cerebrovascular blood flow in healthy girls and boys.

  105. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on elementary schoolers’ physical activity, sleep, screen time and diet: A quasi-experimental interrupted time series study.


    This may ultimately exacerbate childhood obesity.

  106. Meeting Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guideline recommendations and risk of all-cause mortality


    These findings provide some support of the ability of the 24-hour Movement Guidelines to predict mortality risk.

  107. Relationships of physical activity and sedentary behavior with the previous and subsequent nights’ sleep in children and youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis


    From a clinical perspective, promotion of either sleep hygiene or daytime PA should be planned with considerations of the virtuous or vicious circle between these behaviours and monitor concurrent effects on the others.

  108. Describing 24-hour movement behaviours among preconception and recently pregnant Canadian parents: who do we need to target?


    Most parents and parents-to-be are not meeting 24-hour movement guidelines. Interventions should focus on optimizing movement behaviors in the peri-partum period, while focusing on mental health, obesity, and general wellbeing.

  109. Exploring determinants of brand extension attitude to promote optimal levels of movement among children and youth


    This research provides important information to organizations regarding how to effectively promote various behaviours when interested in expanding their usual repertoire.

  110. Health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for musculoskeletal fitness among youth: A systematic review


    More research, using standardized testing protocols and health-risk definitions, is required to better triangulate universal health-related cut-points for MSF among youth.

  111. Trends in physical fitness among Canadian adults, 2007 to 2017


    It is necessary to explore new ways to help improve the fitness levels of the Canadian population.

  112. Two-month administration of methylphenidate improves olfactory sensitivity and suppresses appetite in individuals with obesity


    The results from this study showed that the administration of short-acting MPH, a drug that increases brain synaptic dopamine levels, improved olfactory sensitivity and suppressed appetite compared with placebo in individuals with obesity. Changes in olfactory sensitivity, however, were not correlated with changes in appetite sensations or changes in BW and body composition in the MPH group.

  113. Attitudes toward physical activity as a treatment component for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: An exploratory qualitative study of patient perceptions


    This study allows for the inclusion of patient voices in the conversation surrounding the role of physical activity in AN treatment.

  114. Cross-sectional examination of 24-hour movement behaviours among 3- and 4-year-old children in urban and rural settings in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries: the SUNRISE study protocol


    Study findings will be disseminated via publications, conference presentations and may contribute to the development of local guidelines and public health interventions.

  115. Sex differences in weight perception and weight gain among Black college students in the USA


    It is important for HBCUs to monitor and address weight gain among Black students as early as possible.

  116. Prevalence and correlates of active transportation to school among Colombian children and adolescents.


    The wealthiest children and adolescents, adolescents from rural areas, and female adolescents should be a focus for future interventions. Actions need to be implemented to improve the involvement in active transportation to/from school in Colombia.

  117. Metabolically healthy obesity in children enrolled in the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR): An exploratory secondary analysis of baseline data


    These findings may help guide clinical decision-making regarding obesity management by focusing on children with MUO who are at relatively high cardiometabolic risk.

  118. Associations between physical activity, sedentary time and social-emotional functioning in young children


    Future research is needed to verify these preliminary findings and determine the directionality of relationships observed, and experimental studies are needed to determine whether promoting either increased steps per day or intensity of physical activity can improve social emotional functioning in the early years.

  119. Association between sociodemographic, dietary, and substance use factors and accelerometer-measured 24-hour movement behaviours in Brazilian adolescents


    What is New: • Sex, age, and dietary behaviours were associated with the 24-hour movement behaviours. • No associations were found between socioeconomic status and substance use with the 24-hour movement behaviours.

  120. Few Canadian children and youth were meeting the 24-hour movement behaviour guidelines 6-months into the COVID-19 pandemic: Follow-up from a national study


    Our study demonstrates the ongoing challenges for children and youth to engage in healthy movement during the pandemic.

  121. Does sleep restriction increase eating in the absence of hunger? Maybe!


    A recent meta-analysis reported that short sleepers eat 385 kcal more per day compared to those who sleep the “adequate amount” based on sleep duration recommendations (5).

  122. Dose-dependent and joint associations between screen time, physical activity, and mental wellbeing in adolescents: an international observational study


    Joint associations of screen time–physical activity with mental wellbeing showed that, compared with the least active participants with more than 8 h per day of screen time and no physical activity, most of the other screen time–physical activity groups had considerably higher life satisfaction and lower psychosomatic complaints.

  123. The relative reinforcing value of snack food is a significant predictor of fat loss in women with overweight or obesity


    This study is the first to examine the effects of different rates of weight loss on impulsivity and RRV food, as well as to examine whether the interaction between these 2 constructs would predict treatment response (changes in BW and FM) in women living with obesity. The findings of the present study support our initial hypothesis that no differences in RRV of food or impulsivity between groups would be noted, given that the study was designed to promote similar weight losses and both groups would be in a state of energy deprivation.

  124. Associations between meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and cardiometabolic risk in young children


    Meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines in early childhood was not associated with overall CMR, but was associated with favorable cholesterol outcomes.

  125. Longitudinal association between movement behaviours and depressive symptoms among adolescents using compositional data analysis.


    Isotemporal substitution estimates indicated that decreasing screen time by 60 minutes/day and replacing that time with 60 minutes of additional sleep is associated with the largest change in depressive symptoms across all subgroups.

  126. Gender differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior: results from over 200,000 Latin-American children and adolescents


    In conclusion, gender differences in the compliance with physical activity guidelines and the <3 hours recreational sedentary behavior cut-point are evident among children and adolescents from Latin-American countries, with boys being more active than girls.

  127. Association between physical activity, screen time activities, diet patterns and daytime sleepiness in a sample of Brazilian adolescents.


    Lower physical activity level, a higher consumption processed foods, and higher social media use were associated with daytime sleepiness in this sample of Brazilian adolescents.

  128. Temporal trends in step test performance for Chinese adults between 2000 and 2014


    There have been negligible to large improvements in step test performance for low to average performing Chinese adults since 2000, which may be meaningful to public health because low endurance is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality.

  129. Weight gain and mental health in the Canadian prison population


    Weight gain of participants observed during incarceration in Canadian federal penitentiaries was not related to the higher prevalence of mental illness or psychotropic medication use.

  130. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and Psychological Distress among Adolescents


    Meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and these associations appear mainly driven by meeting the sleep duration recommendation.

  131. Global prevalence of physical activity for children and adolescents; inconsistencies, research gaps, and recommendations: a narrative review


    The development of a new PA measurement instrument that would be globally accepted and harmonized is a global health priority to help improve the accuracy and reliability of global surveillance.

  132. Striking the right balance: evidence to inform combined physical activity and sedentary behavior recommendations


    This method could be applied to provide evidence for more flexible recommendations in the future with options to act on different behaviors depending on individuals' circumstances and capacity.

  133. Influence of weather conditions on children’s school travel mode and physical activity in 3 diverse regions in Canada


    Interventions designed to help children and families adapt to weather-related barriers to AST and PA are needed.

  134. Sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. college students, 2011-2015


    Intervention strategies for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in U.S. college students should consider sex and racial/ethnic inequalities.

  135. Association between screen time and accelerometer-measured 24-h movement behaviors in a sample of Brazilian adolescents.


    Indicators of screen time were associated with different accelerometer-measured 24-h movement behaviors in this sample of Brazilian adolescents.

  136. Meeting 24-h movement guidelines: Prevalence, correlates, and the relationships with overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents


    future studies should use longitudinal or interventional designs to determine the relationships between meeting the 24-h movement guidelines and OW/OB and other health indicators, while taking sex and age differences into account.

  137. No association between dopaminergic polymorphisms and response to treatment of binge-eating disorder


    Future studies should examine a greater variety of dopaminergic polymorphisms, other candidate genes that target other neurotransmitter systems, as well as examine their impact on both behavioral and pharmacological-based treatment for BED.

  138. Robust cross-country comparison of children meeting 24-hr movement guidelines: an odds solution for binary effect efficiency measures


    We have shown that the use of odds overcomes inconsistency between input and output population level efficiency measures relative to best practice that arises for binary effects such as meeting or not meeting guidelines with use of probability or proportions. This finding for any binary effect results from the symmetrical nature of odds and odds ratios and their inversion with relative efficiency measures in maximising output (e.g. meeting guidelines) or minimising input (e.g. not meeting guidelines) relative to the same best practice comparator.

  139. Interactions with Home and Health Environments Discourage Physical Activity: Reports from Children with Complex Congenital Heart Disease and Their Parents


    Positive clinical encouragement and health environment interventions that better support physical activity are required.

  140. Nonmedical use of prescription opioids, psychological distress, and suicidality among adolescents.


    Future research using a longitudinal design is needed to confirm age differences and temporality.

  141. 24-hour movement behaviors and internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth.


    These associations were mainly explained by meeting the screen time and sleep duration recommendations.

  142. Meeting 24-h movement guidelines and associations with health related quality of life of Australian adolescents


    Overall, meeting more recommendations within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was associated with better HRQoL outcomes.

  143. Effect of Acute Exercise and Cycling Desk on Energy Intake and Appetite Response to Mental Work: The CORTEX Study


    Overall composite appetite score was not different between conditions.

  144. Screen time is independently associated with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in youth with obesity


    Future intervention research is needed to determine whether limiting screen time is an effective way to increase BDNF and associated health benefits in a high-risk population of youth with obesity. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00195858.

  145. Prevalence and correlates of meeting physical activity guidelines among Colombian children and adolescents


    The correlates identified in our study can help inform the development of actions to overcome the disparities and provide opportunities for children to achieve their full potential for healthy growth and development.

  146. 24-h movement guidelines and substance use among adolescents: a school-based cross-sectional study


    Given that the associations between 24-h movement guidelines and substance use differ between boys and girls, future efforts should take this into consideration.

  147. Systematic review of the correlates of outdoor play and time among children aged 3-12 years


    Future work should investigate the interactions and processes of multiple variables across different levels of socioecological modelling to better understand the mechanisms through which outdoor play/time opportunities can be optimized for children while paying special attention to varying conditions in which children are born, live, and play.

  148. “You can’t go to the park, you can’t go here, you can’t go there”: Exploring parental experiences of COVID-19 and its impact on their children’s movement behaviours


    It will be important to continue to encourage outdoor time, support policies and practice that facilitate independent mobility, and develop centralized resources that help families in the maintenance of healthy movement behaviours.

  149. Effects of classroom active desks on children and adolescents’ physical activity, sedentary behavior, academic achievements and overall health: a systematic review


    Due to weak methodology, future studies with stronger study designs and methodology are needed to better inform policy and practice about the role of classroom active desks on health-related outcomes in children and adolescents.

  150. Associations between sociodemographic, dietary, and substance use factors with self-reported 24-hour movement behaviors in a sample of Brazilian adolescents.


    No associations were observed for sleep duration. In conclusion, sociodemographic, dietary, and substance use factors are associated with the 24 h movement behaviors among Brazilian adolescents, and some associations are type specific.

  151. Protocol for a randomised trial evaluating a preconception-early childhood telephone-based intervention with tailored e-health resources for women and their partners to optimise growth and development among children in Canada: a Healthy Life Trajectory Initiative (HeLTI Canada)


    The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to policymakers at local, national and international agencies. Findings will also be shared with study participants and their communities.

  152. First sleep health guidelines for Canadian adults: implications for clinicians.


    Canada, marks an important step towards a better recognition of “sleep health” as a critical component of health and wellness. Clinicians are well positioned to discuss sleep health with their patients and initiate treatment options. It is hoped it will now be part of routine medical examinations.

  153. Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles Among Children With Complex Heart Disease and Their Caregivers


    There is a profound need to enhance knowledge of childhood heart conditions and improve interactions among key stakeholders—children and families, educators, and recreation and healthcare professionals.

  154. Changes in healthy behaviors and meeting 24-h Movement Guidelines in Spanish and Brazilian preschoolers, children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown


    Efforts to protect and support healthy behaviors of young people during a period of pandemic restrictions need to be a priority.

  155. Do fit kids have fit parents?


    A significant and positive association was evident in measured physical fitness among parents and children. Some variation in the presence and strength of associations existed according to child and parent sex.

  156. Typologies of family functioning and 24-h movement behaviors


    These findings highlight the importance of the family environment for promoting healthy movement behaviors among children.

  157. Sleep Duration and Weight Gain among Students at a Historically Black University


    Appropriate sleep and weight management should be considered to address sex disparities in sleep and weight gain among black students at historically black universities.

  158. Poor adherence to sleep and physical activity guidelines among children with epilepsy


    To assess physical activity and sleep rates in a cohort of children with epilepsy (CWE) and determine if there is a relationship between physical activity and sleep time.

  159. Developing patient resources to enable the exchange of healthy lifestyle information between clinicians and families of children with complex heart problems


    healthy active lifestyles among children with CHP and the impact of these resources for changing healthy lifestyle behaviours.

  160. Association between 24‐hour movement guidelines and physical fitness in children


    In order to enhance children’s physical fitness, public health recommendations should primarily target MVPA.

  161. Regional differences in access to the outdoors and outdoor play of Canadian children and youth during the COVID-19 outbreak


    It is unsurprising that in the provinces that have had the highest number of COVID-19 cases, there have been the most stringent restrictions on access to the outdoors. It is also unsurprising that these same provinces have had the greatest decline in time spent outdoors and in outdoor play among children and youth.

  162. The whole day matters: Understanding 24-hour movement guideline adherence and relationships with health indicators across the lifespan


    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the associations between the 24-h time-use composition of movement behaviors, or adherence to 24-h movement guidelines, and multiple health indicators across the lifespan.

  163. Sedentary Behavior Research Network members support new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guideline recommendations


    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18 to 64 years and Adults aged 65 years and older are grounded in evidence from a variety of research sources, unanimously endorsed by the Guideline Development Panel4 and strongly supported by stakeholders, including many SBRN members.

  164. Obesity-related behaviors of students at historically black colleges and universities and students at non-historically black colleges and universities


    Findings suggest the need for implementation of aggressive overweight and obesity prevention strategies for students at HBCUs.

  165. Psychological Correlates of Sedentary Screen Time Behaviour Among Children and Adolescents: a Narrative Review


    Practitioners, parents, policy makers and researchers should collectively identify and evaluate strategies to reduce screen time, or to use screens more adaptively, as a means of promoting better mental health among children and adolescents.

  166. How should we move for health? The case for the 24-hour movement paradigm


    Although the current evidence informing movement guidelines is and may always be imperfect, the creators of the Canadian guidelines consider that interpretation of that evidence must lead to advice that has the best chance of preserving and promoting people’s health by providing practitioners with more options to explore with patients in a patient-centred way, in an effort to improve health through modification of movement behaviour.

  167. Cross-validation of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy Second Edition (CAPL-2): the case of a Chinese population


    This study was the first to cross-validate the CAPL-2 into the Chinese population. CAPL-2 (Chinese) offers the possibility of assessing physical literacy for researchers and practitioners and Chinese children’s physical literacy development could be easily tracked in school settings.

  168. Participation in a Community-Based Sport Program is Feasible for Children with Congenital Heart Disease and May Benefit Physical Literacy Development: A Pilot Study


    Future trials evaluating Sportball©’s impact with larger samples and multiple 10-week sessions are recommended.

  169. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour


    These guidelines should be used to inform national health policies aligned with the WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018-2030 and to strengthen surveillance systems that track progress towards national and global targets.

  170. Advancing the global physical activity agenda: recommendations for future research by the 2020 WHO physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines development group


    Although the 2020 WHO Guidelines for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior were informed by the most up-to-date research on the health effects of physical activity and sedentary time, there is still substantial work to be done in advancing the global physical activity agenda.

  171. 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years: summary of the evidence


    Addressing the identified research gaps will better inform guideline recommendations in children and adolescents, and future work should aim to prioritize these areas of research. In the meantime, investment and leadership is needed to scale up known effective policies and programs aimed at increasing activity in children and adolescents.

  172. Relationships among children’s independent mobility, active transportation and physical activity: a multi-site cross-sectional study


    Keywords: active travel; children’s autonomy; pedometers; urbanization; multilevel models

  173. Introduction to the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18-64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep


    Support for the development of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep was provided by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Queen’s University, and ParticipACTION.

  174. Sedentary behaviour and health in adults: an overview of systematic reviews


    Our findings suggest that high levels of sedentary behaviour are unfavourably associated with cognitive function, depression, function and disability, physical activity levels, and physical health-related quality of life in adults. Our results also suggest that reducing or breaking up periods of prolonged sitting may have beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk and body composition. Although sedentary behaviour was generally associated with negative health outcomes, there may be favourable associations between computer and Internet use and cognitive function in older adults. Our findings have important public health implications and suggest that adults should avoid accumulating high levels of sedentary behaviour. Future work is needed to identify whether a dose–response relationship exists between sedentary behaviour and these health outcomes, and whether these relationships are consistent across sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  175. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18-64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep


    The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep completes the set of 24-Hour Movement Guidelines that together provide recommendations for healthy movement behaviours for the whole day for all Canadians. The Guidelines were generated based on the best available evidence with extensive consultation and stakeholder feedback. The CP recognized that to adopt and sustain any movement behaviour in today’s environment presents very real challenges for all adults. It is hoped that the shift in focus from movement behaviours in isolation to the integration of all movement behaviours over the whole day will provide movement options for adults, treatment options for practitioners, and greater opportunities for public health promotion.

  176. Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members support new Canadian 24-hour Movement Guideline recommendations


    The authors are grateful to Dr. Jennifer Tomasone and her students, who were responsible for the administration of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults Stakeholder Survey from which the Sedentary Behavior Research Network sub-analysis was drawn.

  177. Sex and racial/ethnic differences in sleep quality and its relationship with body weight status among US college students


    Understanding sex and racial/ethnic sleep differences and the association between sleep and body weight status is important for colleges to promote college students' healthy sleep.

  178. Physical inactivity as a risk factor for all-cause mortality in Brazil (1990-2017)


    It could be concluded that physical inactivity contributed to a substantial number of deaths in Brazil and in the different Brazilian states from 1990 to 2017. From 1990 to 2017, a decrease in standardized death rate from all causes attributable to physical inactivity was observed in Brazil. Brazilian states with the highest social inequalities showed lower reductions (from 1990 to 2017) in age-standardized mortality rate for all causes attributable to physical inactivity. The results of the present study show the importance of preventing risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases in all Brazilian states, and greater effort in combating social and economic inequities related to the living conditions of the population is needed, so that the adoption of active and healthy lifestyle has greater reach in all regions of Brazil.

  179. Prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines in a sample of Brazilian adolescents


    Approximately 3% of the participants met the MVPA, screen-time, and sleep duration recommendations simultaneously, while this proportion was 0.2% when accelerometer data were used for MVPA and sleep duration. Adherence to the sleep duration recommendation was higher than to the screen-time or MVPA recommendations. Boys were more likely to meet the MVPA recommendations, but less likely to meet sleep duration and scree-time recommendations, and age was positively associated with adhering to the screen-time recommendation. Future policies and interventions should promote adherence to 24-hours movement behaviors in an integrated manner.

  180. Association between lifestyle behaviors and health-related quality of life in a sample of Brazilian adolescents


    This study identified that adolescents who spent more time on sports but not on non-sports physical activities had higher scores of HRQoL. The time spent in work-related screen activities was inversely associated with HRQoL score. However, this association was not observed for recreational screen time indicators (i.e., watching videos, playing videogames, or using social media). In addition, girls, adolescents who experimented with drugs in their life course, those with higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, and those who sleep insufficiently reported lower scores of HRQoL. These findings suggest that promoting sports and adequate sleep, and preventing the use of drugs and excessive workloads among adolescents may be effective strategies to improve HRQoL.

  181. Association of screen time and cardiometabolic risk in school-aged children


    Highlights • No evidence of an association between children’s parental-reported screen time and total cardiometabolic risk score. •Weak association between increased screen time and reduced HDL cholesterol in children. •No sex or age interactions detected between parental-reported screen time and cardiometabolic risk.

  182. Healthy movement behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the role of the neighbourhood environment


    To conclude, this study provides important insights into the movement patterns of children and youth, and our findings highlight the importance of the neighbourhood environment in enabling healthier behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings will inform public health policies as we recover from this current crisis and prepare for future pandemics. The results will also inform urban planning policy and design guidelines in the post-COVID-19 period. As we continue to gain novel insights from our experiences during the pandemic, these learnings will be important for creating stronger, healthier, and more resilient communities.

  183. Promoting physical activity in children with impairments


    Quality physical activity opportunities provide each child with desired activities in the settings of interest.

  184. Healthy movement behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the role of the neighbourhood environment


    This paper explores patterns of increased/ decreased physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours among Canadian children and youth aged 5-17 years during the COVID-19 pandemic, and examines how these changes are associated with the built environment near residential locations.

  185. Profiles of active transportation among children and adolescents in the Global Matrix 3.0 initiative: a 49-country comparison


    This work allowed for a deeper exploration of the active transportation information reported by all the countries participating in the Global Matrix 3.0. Based on our findings, we identified the need to standardize definitions of active transportation to be able to make more meaningful comparisons. The LPA conducted allows for the inference that countries belonging to a specific profile have a greater probability of sharing certain characteristics among them compared to the countries belonging to other profiles. Given the variation by geographic region and even HDI, this approach is useful for identification of more meaningful groupings that can facilitate the cross-fertilization of efforts to promote active transportation, and therefore, to “power the movement to get kids moving”, as is intended by the Global Matrix initiative [171]. The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance can contribute to improving active travel surveillance providing guidance to countries involved in future versions of the Global Matrix. A more comprehensive approach to active transportation surveillance that considers duration, distance, frequency, direction, other destinations than school and the contribution of active transportation to school to overall active transportation, could improve the understanding of this behaviour and its potential to increase overall physical activity.

  186. “I really like playing games together”: Understanding what influences children with congenital heart disease to participate in physical activity


    Community-based programmes may also be an appropriate context for children with cardiac conditions to engage and maintain participation in physical activity through adolescence.

  187. Canadian children’s and youth’s adherence to the 24-h movement guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic: A decision tree analysis


    Our results show that specific characteristics interact to contribute to (non)adherence to the movement behavior recommendations. Results highlight the importance of targeting parents’ perceived capability for the promotion of children's and youth's movement behaviors during challenging times of the COVID-19 pandemic, paying particular attention to enhancing parental perceived capability to restrict screen time.

  188. Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth: a national survey


    This study provides evidence of immediate collateral consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak, demonstrating an adverse impact on the movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth. These findings can guide efforts to preserve and promote child health during the COVID-19 outbreak and crisis recovery period, and to inform strategies to mitigate potential harm during future pandemics.

  189. Yoga and Aerobic Dance for Pain Management in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial


    The use of online programs to disseminate these 2 PA interventions may facilitate access to alternative methods of pain management. This study can lead to a full-scale RCT.

  190. Associations between duration and type of electronic screen use and cognition in US children


    We report the relationship between cognition and screen use in 11,875 US children. Higher TV and video watching were negatively associated with cognition.

  191. Comparing and assessing physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents: a systematic literature review and analysis


    There is growing global interest in physical activity and sedentary behaviour guideline development. More recently some countries have included sleep in their guidelines focusing on movement behaviours during a 24 h period.. The findings from this review indicate extensive variability in the quality of country guidelines.

  192. Sleep and screen time are more linked with academic achievement than physical activity


    High school students who met the screen time and sleep guidelines showed better academic performance than those who did not meet any guidelines.

  193. Identifying Criteria for a Physical Literacy Screening Task: An Expert Delphi Process


    Research is required to identify potential tasks that meet these criteria and are suitable for each REACH sector.

  194. New Data regarding decreased physical activity during the Global Pandemic


    The time spent in places associated with physical activity such as parks, beaches, and community gardens was down by 31%, and travel by public transport, which is also associated with physical activity, was down by 59%.

  195. Sex differences in the relationship between social media use, short sleep duration, and body mass index among adolescents


    Our results showed that short sleep duration is a concurrent mediator of the relationship between social media use and BMI z-scores among males. Reducing time spent using social media may be a good behavioral target to promote adequate sleep duration, which is considered as a component in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  196. Combinations of physical activity and screen time recommendations and their association with overweight/obesity in adolescents.


    Children meeting both the physical activity and screen time recommendations are less likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared with any other combination. Future efforts are needed to target both MVPA and sedentary behaviour to address public health concerns such as excess weight.

  197. Association between dietary behaviours and weight status of school children: Results from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) – Kenya


    Children have healthy diets rich in fruits and vegetables and low in energy-dense foods. Also, less healthy diets were observed in children with lower BMI. There is need for interventions targeting the overweight/obese children, particularly those of higher SES.

  198. Impacting child health outcomes in congenital heart disease: Cluster randomized controlled trial protocol of in-clinic physical activity counselling


    The impact on physical activity motivation and participation will evaluate the effectiveness of this standardized approach for increasing physical activity in children with congenital heart defects.

  199. Physically active children with epilepsy have good objective sleep duration and efficiency despite subjective reports of fatigue and sleep problems


    The physical activity of initially less active and older children with epilepsy may benefit from an exercise counseling intervention.

  200. Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy in grades 7-9 (12-16 years): Preliminary validity and descriptive results


    The CAPL 789 was feasible among children from grades 7-9. Additional research is required to establish the psychometric properties in children 12 to 16 years.

  201. Population-level evaluation of ParticipACTION’s 150 Play List: A mass-reach campaign with mass participatory events


    The 150 Play List was valued by those aware of it and the campaign was related to interest in sport and physical activity in Canada. The community events had potential to augment campaign effects but adequate evaluation requires sufficient resources.

  202. Parents of Very Young Children with Congenital Heart Defects Report Good Quality of Life for Their Children and Families Regardless of Defect Severity


    Parents report a lower quality of life among girls, and lower family quality of life is associated with lower family income.

  203. Body mass index and movement behaviors among schoolchildren from 13 countries across a continuum of human development indices: A multinational cross‐sectional study


    Our findings show distinct differences in BMI and movement behavior profiles between urban and rural children in Mozambique. Mean BMI z‐scores, MVPA, and SED differed by country HDI. These findings support the need to include both rural and urban participants in study samples.

  204. The effect of high-intensity interval training on inhibitory control in adolescents hospitalized for a mental illness.


    The impact of pre-therapy HIIT to enhance focus and reduce impulsive thoughts and behaviours may improve adolescent patients’ response to mental health treatment.

  205. 24-Hour Movement Behaviors and Impulsivity


    Data from this cross-sectional observational study were part of the first annual curated release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Participants included 4524 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years.

  206. Health trajectories of children with severe obesity attending a weight management program


    Findings highlight the need to examine both mental and physical health outcomes beyond 1 year.

  207. Understanding parent perceptions of healthy physical activity for their child with a chronic medical condition: A cross-sectional study


    Over one-third of parents reported having questions about physical activity for their child with a chronic medical condition, suggesting substantial uncertainty even among children reported as active. Presence of parent uncertainty is associated with parent reports of the child being unwell or a history of cardiac arrhythmia

  208. Obesity class versus the Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics to define health risk in childhood obesity: results from the CANPWR cross-sectional study


    As BMI class increased, a concomitant increased disease burden in mechanical and social milieu issues was observed, whereas metabolic and mental health risks were high across BMI classes.

  209. Balancing time use for children’s fitness and adiposity: Evidence to inform 24-hour guidelines for sleep, sedentary time and physical activity


    To best balance both outcomes, estimated activity durations for sleep and LPA align with, but for MVPA exceed, 24-h guidelines.

  210. Higher screen time, lower muscular endurance, and decreased agility limit the physical literacy of children with epilepsy


    Children with epilepsy demonstrate poor physical literacy levels, with potential immediate and long-lasting negative impacts on general health and psychosocial well-being. Programs promoting physical literacy in children with epilepsy should be encouraged, specifically interventions decreasing screen time and enhancing muscular endurance and motor skills, thereby facilitating healthier lifestyles.

  211. Sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of the Get Active Questionnaire for identifying children with medically necessary special considerations for physical activity


    The sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of the Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) for identifying children needing special considerations during physical activity was evaluated among parents of 207 children aged 3 to 14 years

  212. Relationship Between Physical Activity, Tic Severity and Quality of Life in Children with Tourette Syndrome


    Further research is needed to determine the utility of physical activity as therapy for tics.

  213. Higher screen time, lower muscular endurance and decreased agility limit the physical literacy of children with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior.


    Programs promoting physical literacy in children with epilepsy should be encouraged, specifically interventions decreasing screen time and enhancing muscular endurance and motor skills, thereby facilitating healthier lifestyles.

  214. Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy Second Edition: a streamlined assessment of the capacity for physical activity among children 8 to 12 years of age


    Regardless of the assessment selected, scores are available to interpret the performance of each child relative to Canadian children of the same age and sex.

  215. Revising the motivation and confidence domain of the Canadian assessment of physical literacy


    The revised and much shorter questionnaire of 12 items that aggregate to four subscales within the domain of Motivation and Confidence is recommended for use in the CAPL-2.

  216. Refining the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy based on theory and factor analyses


    The scores from the revised and much shorter 14-indicator model of CAPL can be used to assess the four correlated domains of physical literacy and/or a higher-order aggregate physical literacy factor.

  217. Associations between domains of physical literacy by weight status in 8- to 12-year-old Canadian children


    All of the domains of the CAPL correlate positively with each other regardless of weight status, with a trend for these correlation coefficients to be slightly stronger in the healthy-weight children.

  218. The relationship between physical literacy scores and adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines


    These cross-sectional findings demonstrate important associations between physical literacy and guideline adherence for physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  219. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years


    This study identified strong favourable associations between CRF and physical literacy and its constituent components in children aged 8–12 years.

  220. Influence of the relative age effect on children’s scores obtained from the Canadian assessment of physical literacy


    Collectively, our results suggest that the RAE bias is mainly negligible with regard to the domain scores and overall CAPL scores in this large sample of children.

  221. Associations between teacher training and measures of physical literacy among Canadian 8- to 12-year-old students


    Children taught by PE specialists were more likely than those taught by generalists to demonstrate recommended levels of motivation and confidence, and to have better movement skills, which are hypothesized to be critical prerequisites for the development of a healthy lifestyle.

  222. A cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between age, gender, and physical measures with adequacy in and predilection for physical activity


    These findings suggest that practitioners should consider the physiological and psychological makeup of the child, and ways to enhance adequacy and predilection among children with limited cardiorespiratory fitness, in order to create the best possible environment for all children to participate in physical activity.

  223. The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical literacy in Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis from the RBC-CAPL Learn to Play study


    These results highlight differences in the ways that screen and non-screen sedentary behaviours relate to physical literacy.

  224. Physical literacy levels of Canadian children aged 8-12 years: descriptive and normative results from the RBC Learn to Play-CAPL project


    These results provide the largest and most comprehensive assessment of physical literacy of Canadian children to date, providing a “state of the nation” baseline, and can be used to monitor changes and inform intervention strategies going forward.

  225. Physical Literacy Knowledge Questionnaire: feasibility, validity, and reliability for Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years


    Future studies of alternative item wording and responses are recommended to enhance test-retest reliability.

  226. Canada’s Physical Literacy Consensus Statement: process and outcome


    Going forward, the impact of this initiative on the sector, and the more distal goal of increasing habitual physical activity levels, should be assessed.

  227. Video Evaluation of Self-Regulation Skills in Preschool Aged Children with Developmental Delays: Can the impact of Tumbling Together be Measured?


    Research comparing Tumbling participants to children not offered the program, and examining whether the self-regulation skills improved during Tumbling participation would generalize to other settings is required.

  228. Y Kids Academy Program Increases Knowledge of Healthy Living in Young Adolescents


    These findings support the suitability of the Y Kids Academy for improving and evaluating knowledge of healthy living in young adolescents.

  229. The mental health of adolescents and pre-adolescents living with inherited arrhythmia syndromes: A systematic review of the literature


  230. Insulin Resistance and Hypertension in Obese Youth With Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treated With Positive Airway Pressure: A Prospective Multicenter Study


    In youth with obesity and SDB, metabolic dysfunction and hypertension were highly prevalent. Larger, longer-term studies are needed to determine whether PAP improves cardiometabolic outcomes in obese youth.

  231. Brain on Fire: Incentive Salience, Hedonic Hot Spots, Dopamine, Obesity, and Other Hunger Games


    The surgical and pharmacological treatments of obesity are discussed, and evidence is presented for the selective use of DA-class drugs in obesity treatment.

  232. Exercise Capacity and Self-Efficacy are Associated with Moderate-to-Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity in Children with Congenital Heart Disease


    Of 172 patients who were recruited, 137 (80%) had complete MVPA data and were included in the analysis.

  233. Conceptual Critique of Canada’s Physical Literacy Assessment Instruments Also Misses the Mark


  234. Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA): Validity, objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8-12 years of age


    The Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment is a feasible measure of selected fundamental, complex and combined movement skills, which are an important building block for childhood physical literacy.

  235. Resistance Training, Alone Or In Combination With Aerobic Training, May Provide Psychological Benefits In Adolescents With Overweight Or Obesity


    Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity

  236. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY randomized controlled trial


    Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity.

  237. The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy: Methods for Children in Grades 4 to 6 (8 to 12 years)


    CAPL offers a comprehensive assessment of engagement in physical activity, physical competence, motivation and confidence, and knowledge and understanding as components of childhood (grades 4 to 6, 8 to 12 years) physical literacy. Monitoring of these measures enhances our understanding of children’s physical literacy, and assists with the identification of areas where additional supports are required.

  238. New concepts in the assessment of exercise capacity among children with congenital heart disease: Looking beyond heart function and mortality


    Physically active lifestyles are important for the physical and mental health of children with congenital heart defects.

  239. Does Neck-to-Waist Ratio Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children?


    Neck-to-waist ratio, an index of body fat distribution, predicts OSA in older children and youth, especially in those who were overweight/obese.


  1. Annick Buchholz

    Investigator, CHEO Research Institute

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  2. Jean-Philippe Chaput

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  3. Gary Goldfield

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  4. Sherri Katz

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  5. Patricia Longmuir

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  6. Phillippe Robaey

    Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  7. Mark S. Tremblay

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  8. Richard Webster

    Investigator, CHEO Research Institute

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  9. Roger Zemek

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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