Revising the motivation and confidence domain of the Canadian assessment of physical literacy


The Motivation and Confidence domain questionnaire in the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was lengthy (36 single items that aggregate to five subscales), and thus burdensome to both participants and practitioners. The purpose of this study was to use factor analysis to refine the Motivation and Confidence domain to be used in the CAPL–Second Edition (CAPL-2).


Children, primarily recruited through free-of-charge summer day camps (n = 205, Mage = 9.50 years, SD = 1.14, 50.7% girls), completed the CAPL-2 protocol, and two survey versions of the Motivation and Confidence questionnaire. Survey 1 contained the Motivation and Confidence questionnaire items from the original CAPL, whereas Survey 2 contained a battery of items informed by self-determination theory to assess motivation and confidence. First, factor analyses were performed on individual questionnaires to examine validity evidence (i.e., internal structure) and score reliability (i.e., coefficient H and omega total). Second, factor analyses were performed on different combinations of questionnaires to establish the least burdensome yet well-fitted and theoretically aligned model.


The assessment of adequacy and predilection, based on 16 single items as originally conceptualized within the CAPL, was not a good fit to the data. Therefore, a revised and shorter version of these scales was proposed, based on exploratory factor analysis. The self-determination theory items provided a good fit to the data; however, identified, introjected, and external regulation had low score reliability. Overall, a model comprising three single items for each of the following subscales was proposed for use within the CAPL-2: adequacy, predilection, intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence satisfaction. This revised domain fit well within the overall CAPL-2 model specifying a higher-order physical literacy factor (MLRχ2(63) = 81.45, p = 0.06, CFI = 0.908, RMSEA = 0.038, 90% CI (0.00, 0.060)).


The revised and much shorter questionnaire of 12 items that aggregate to four subscales within the domain of Motivation and Confidence is recommended for use in the CAPL-2. The revised domain is aligned with the definition of motivation and confidence within physical literacy and has clearer instructions for completion.

Lead Researchers

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  1. Patricia Longmuir

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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  2. Mark S. Tremblay

    Senior Scientist, CHEO Research Institute

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