Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality Associated With Orofacial Cleft Among Children in Ontario, Canada


Importance  Orofacial cleft (OFC) is one of the most common congenital malformations, with a wide variation in incidence worldwide. However, population-based studies on the incidence of OFC in North America are lacking.

Objectives  To examine the incidence of OFC in Ontario, Canada, and to compare risk factors and mortality associated with children with OFC vs children without OFC.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This population-based retrospective cohort study used health administrative data from the province of Ontario, Canada. Children with OFC who were born from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2017, in Ontario were each matched to 5 children without OFC based on sex, date of birth (±30 days), and mother’s age (±5 years). Analyses were conducted from September 2018 to January 2019.

Lead Researchers

Link to Publication


  1. Claudia Malic

    Investigator, CHEO Research Institute

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