The understanding of the native hip’s mechanics, physiology, and pathology has dramatically improved over the recent 2 decades. This was facilitated by the introduction of open and arthroscopic procedures to the native hip aimed at improving the joint’s function and longevity. Associations between abnormal hip mechanics and further development of osteoarthritis are now clear. As the knowledge of hip joint mechanics has improved, other conditions around the hip have become evident, which may lead to pain but not necessarily osteoarthritis. It is important for the orthopaedic surgeon to be up to date on how the hip preservation field has evolved and the steps to consider when a painful hip presents in clinic.